This document is a summary of an interview with Carmene Raffaele. Topics include what her family's life was like in Italy, why her grandfather immigrated to the United States, courtship, boarding houses, the Italian community in Hessel, prejudice against Italians and Catholics, the Ku Klux Klan, the Italian community in Sault Sainte Marie, her father's jobs on the Mackinaw Bridge and the Soo Locks, Italian businesses, winemaking, Prohibition, interaction between Italian-Americans and Italian-Canadians, food, speaking Italian, midwives, the Christopher Columbus Society, Mussolini, the FBI investigating Italian-American loyalties, World War II, the treatment of African Americans in the Sault, entertainment, citizenship, and hunting.
Permission to publish the Carmene Raffaele Interview Summary (Part of the Italian American Oral History Project), must be obtained from the University Archivist. The University Archivist may be reached by phone at 906-227-1225, or e-mail, email@example.com. The University Archivist may also be reached in Room 126 of the Learning Resource Center, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI.